Turquoise has been known by many names, but the word Turquoise dates to the 17th century and is derived from the French turques for "Turks" because the mineral was first brought to Europe from Turkey, from mines in the historical Khorasan Province of Persia. Pliny the Elder referred to the mineral as callais and the Aztecs knew it as chalchihuitl. Turquoise, a birthstone of December, varies in color from greenish blue, through robin's egg-blue, to sky blue shades, and its transparency ranges from translucent to opaque. Turquoise is plentiful and is available in a wide range of sizes. It is most often used for beads, cabochons, carvings, and inlays. Although its popularity fluctuates in fashion, it is a perennial favorite in the American Southwest. It’s a cliché that those with a bohemian aesthetic tend to favor turquoise, but maybe it's because the stone has a "back to the roots" kind of mojo. Turquoise is believed to combine female and male energies together as one. Turquoise is known as the “master Healer,” and is said to be the bridge between Heaven, Sky and the Earth. Many Native American cultures believe that Turquoise helps to connect the mind to the infinite possibilities of the Universe and is considered very sacred in Chinese cultures as well. It is a throat Chakra stone, as it helps to foster honest and open communication from the heart. It works to protect and align the chakras, strengthening the overall body in the process. It is associated with self-acceptance, healing, love and an appreciation for nature.