Rubies, the birthstone of July, are considered the king of gems and represent love, health and wisdom. It was believed wearing a fine red Ruby bestowed good fortune on its owner. Its name comes from ruber, Latin for red. A Ruby is the most valuable gemstone and its value increases based on its color and quality. Ruby is the red variety of corundum and has a Mohs hardness of 9. Rubies have a long history; mining for this stone goes back to the 8th century BC in Sri Lanka and has been prized by royalty from all eras. Not all Rubies are clear stones, star Rubies are Rubies that contain large amounts of inclusions called "rutiles" that grew in patterns and when the stone is cut in cabochon a star shape appears. Fine-quality Rubies are extremely rare and the color of the gem is most important to its value. The most prized color is a medium or medium-dark vivid red or slightly purplish red. If the gem is too light or has too much purple or orange, it will be called a fancy-color sapphire. Rubies are essentially just red sapphires—they both come from the stone Corundum; the moniker "sapphire" just represents all hues aside from red. These “stones of courage” are considered to be one of the most powerful stones, packed with a fire that connects directly to the Root Chakra (the very base of your body's energy flow). If you're feeling at all lethargic in pursuits of the mind or body, this is the stone to covet: It'll boost stamina in all aspects of your life. This includes the bedroom—rubies are believed to be a powerful aphrodisiac.Also known to increase integrity, devotion, and happiness. Rubies are found in a number of places including India, Myanmar, Thailand, Sri Lanka, Cambodia, and North Carolina.